Kebakaran Hutan 2019, Kenapa terjadi?

Metode pembukaan lahan tanpa membakar kini sudah banyak dikembangkan karena memang pada kenyataannya membuka lahan dengan cara membakar lebih banyak mendatangkan bencana dan kerugian serta mungkin juga faktor Climate Change is Real jadi kondisi alam sekarang tidak bisa disamakan dengan jaman nenek moyang. Faktor kesengajaan manusia memang menjadi poin penting dalam kejadian seperti ini. Namun kita coba kita pahami dari sisi yang lain, bagaimana alam mempengaruhi kejadian kebakaran pada tahun tersebut.

Aspek yang paling erat dikaitkan pada kejadian kekeringan di Indonesia dari aspek iklim tidak lain tidak bukan adalah El-Nino. Pada Juli 2018 – Agustus 2019, Kita dapat mengamati lewat citra satelit bahwa telah terjadi peningkatan suhu permukaan laut pada wilayah tengah dan timur samudera pasifik ditandai dengan warna merah. Peningkatan suhu permukaan laut (SPL) di periode 2018 – 2019 memang tidak seekstrim pada kejadian ditahun 2015 yang mengakibatkan kekeringan parah di sebagian besar wilayah Indonesia seperti yang terlihat pada gambar dibawah (kanan). Warna SPL merah hingga putih menunjukkan kondisi El-Nino kuat ditandai dengan peningkatan suhu permukaan secara drastis.

Juli 2018 - Agustus 2019
Akhir tahun 2015

Berdasarkan ENSO indeks, kita dapat melihat bahwa memang terjadi peningkatan ONI (Oceanic Nino Index) dengan rentang +0.6 – +0.9 selama rentang September 2018 hingga Juli 2019. Nilai positif tersebut menunjukkan adanya anomali El-Nino lemah yang mengakibatkan angin yang berhembus menuju Indonesia cenderung miskin air. Meskipun dampaknya tidak kuat namun jelas hal tersebut tetap berpengaruh pada kondisi iklim yang terjadi di Indonesia. Musim kering pada tahun 2019 cenderung lebih kering dan lebih panjang dibanding dengan keadaan normal.

Kebakaran hutan dan lahan nampaknya sudah menjadi agenda tahunan yang tidak dapat terhindarkan. Namun, kita tidak perlu mencari kambing hitam dalam permasalahan ini. Setiap langkah dilaksanakan bertujuan untuk kesejahteraan serta kepentingan bersama. Memulihkan suatu ekosistem lahan yang telah terdegradasi bukanlah hal yang mudah dan cepat. Perlu kerja keras dan waktu yang lama hingga alam kembali pulih seperti sedia kala dan itu merupakan tugas setiap kita untuk menjaganya.

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